D. Werewolf legends of the Scandinavian Nations and Arctic Tribes
  1. Iceland – Hamrammr / Carlos S.O. (B1)
  2. Scandinavia - Úlfhednar, ulfheobar / Donovan Q. (A1)
  3. Innuit/Eskimo - Adlets
  4. Innuit/Eskimo – tirichik
  5. Innuit/Eskimo - mauraa
  6. Innuit/Eskimo - nikaseenithulooyee
  7. Innuit/Eskimo - akhlut
  8. Innuit/Eskimo - palraiyuk
  9. Norse - Fenrir / Daniel W. (A3)
10.Finland – ihmissusi / Devin L. (A3)
11.Iceland – varulfur, varulv / Sam H. (A3)
12.Norway – Huse-bjorn


Iceland -Hamrammr Carlos S.O. (B1)
Berserker.jpg
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http://www.google.com/imgres?q=hamrammr&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1130&bih=709&tbm=isch&tbnid=bhsYmu-poAA4KM:&imgrefurl=http:multynexus.com/category/hombre-lobo/&docid=ZhDbU7Vt0wraJM&imgurl=http://www.linkmesh.com/imagenes/temas3/hombres_lobos/pelea_de_lobos.jpg&w=434&h=440&ei=Eh7cTpXZJoWvsALx2YSUDg&zoom=1


http://www.google.com/imgres?q=hamrammr&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1130&bih=709&tbm=isch&tbnid=z6WUxHWLBVgqsM:&imgrefurl=http:levigilant.com/Bulfinch_Mythology/bulfinch.englishatheist.org/wolfes/werewolfes.html&docid=Oup8sHeYMF0AnM&imgurl=http://levigilant.com/Bulfinch_Mythology/bulfinch.englishatheist.org/wolfes/images/Berserker.jpg&w=400&h=337&ei=Eh7cTpXZJoWvsALx2YSUDg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=305&sig=101706534012024460407&page=2&tbnh=131&tbnw=156&start=17&ndsp=13&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:17&tx=85&ty=84

http://www.google.com/imgres?q=hamrammr&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1130&bih=709&tbm=isch&tbnid=bhsYmu-poAA4KM:&imgrefurl=http:multynexus.com/category/hombre-lobo/&docid=ZhDbU7Vt0wraJM&imgurl=http://www.linkmesh.com/imagenes/temas3/hombres_lobos/pelea_de_lobos.jpg&w=434&h=440&ei=Eh7cTpXZJoWvsALx2YSUDg&zoom=1

Werewolf legends were cultivating worldwide in earlier centuries such as Iceland. However, the Icelandic people did not call there mighty beast “werewolves” rather the more proper way of calling it was “varulfur.” (Janice Moore). There varulfur was then called the Hamrammr; a wolf with intense strength. It is said that after each meal the Hamrammr would acquire more strength to its self. (Janice Moore). Along with the ability to increase it's strength, it also had the ability to shape-shift into any animal it had recently consumed. (Janice Moore). This ability to change it's shape is then called the process of anthropomorphism .” (Wikipedia). Though such creature that gains strength and shape-shift would of come to mind as a nightmare the Icelandic people somewhat praised it. As given in good example by (Adam Wayzt):
The term anthropomorphism was coined by the Greek philosopher Xenophanes when describing the similarity between religious believers and their gods — that is, Greek gods were depicted having light skin and blue eyes while African gods had dark skin and brown eyes......Anthropomorphism carries many important implications. For example, thinking of a nonhuman entity in human ways renders it worthy of moral care and consideration.” {quoted from Adam Wayzt}


In order to understand this we need to keep in mind that Icelandic people were originally from Norway before vikings had settled into Iceland. Also, before the great migration to Iceland they were well aware of ancient philosophical influences thousands of years ago. Even in the Greek mythologies the gods were viewed as great entities given human characteristics. How else do gods look like? Why is it that around the world, thousands of years ago when people thought of there god(s) they are relatively given the shape and basic figures of the human body? To this perspective it is safe to say that the Hamrammr were not looked down as vile beast but rather more as entities of great beauty. Though werewolves are often looked down upon as scary fiends, living in a time of era were science and understanding was relatively low, the Icelandic tribes saw wild wolf as natures finest. To make sense of this phenomenon, that they thought it was true, they assumed that the Hamrammr were human, just like them! To connect the meaning of how a human can become a wolf and how a wolf could shape-shift, the idea of anthropomorphism was put in for the answer. Unable to go any farther then that explanation the people took it with out questioning. Now that we are more in advanced stage in our era we now know such things are impossible to happen, but the idea of anthropomorphism has yet to ceased to exist. You probably don't realize but you too have practiced anthropomorphism. A good example of this would be a dog. When it does something cute or something we like we praise it, we use “baby talk” and speak to it as if it were to understand us, some dress them up, some of us go as far as giving them human names and feeding them “special food.” This very same idea of how we are now focusing dogs as not dogs anymore but more like “family members,” was probably the same idea Icelandic viewed the Hamrammr. Not as something to fear and hunt, but rather something to appreciate and thank. Unfortunately, the vikings stopped pillaging and started to farm. Even so, just like every other nation wolfs started becoming threats and nuisance to farmers live stocks. The idea of the Hamrammr/ wolfs in general being an entities slowly faded as farmers then tried to kill them in order to protect their animals, but there recognition still exist today. Even media still shows anthropomorphism to any age.

Iceland - Varulfur, Varulv Sam H. (A3)

were disgusting
were disgusting

http://drekastelpa92.blogcentral.is/myndasafn/187617/

Iceland has unique stories about werewolves, or varulfur. In one story 2 men named Sigmund and Sinfjotli go into a house and see 2 men sleeping that are under a spell. Under the spell the 2 men would have to be wolves for 9 days and on the 10th day would be returned to human form. Sinfjotli and Sigmund decide to take the wolf skins that were putting the men under the spell and put them on. They put them on, turn into wolves and decide to go their own way but call for help when they needed it. One day got confronted by several hunters trying to kills him so he howled for Sinfjotli. Sinfjotli came and they killed the hunters. He then made a comment about Sigmund needed help. Sigmund got made and bit his throat. He then felt guilty and drug him back to the cabin where they found the skins. In the cabin he saw 2 badger’s fighting and one bit the other’s throat. The badger then went to get a leaf and put it over the dying badger and the dying badger came back to life. Sigmund then went to look for the same leaf but a raven brought one to him. He put it on his friend and he came back to life. In another story of werewolves magic trousers turned the people into a werewolf or other animal. Feet, legs, and lower body were cut from a fresh corpse and made into trousers. Black magicians would then say incantations and put the trousers on which would allow them to turn into any animal, like a wolf. “It was said that the “most evil man in Iceland,” Gottskalk Grimmi Nikulasson (Bishop of Holar 1496-1520), left detailed instructions on how to create the corpse breeches, as well as skin cloaks for turning men into animals.” (Moonlight) These instructions were then taught at black magic schools.








Finland – ihmissusi / Devin L. (A3)

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Demi.fi. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://demi.fi/moduletextimage/getContent/instance_id/92268>.


Ihmissusi is Finnish for werewolf. Ihmissusi is a legend and the myth of prey, which turns from an ordinary human form to a wolf like form on a fullmoon at midnight. The moonlight gives the werewolf a bloodthirsty effect. Werewolf's characteristics are very bushy eyebrows, hairy palms, a special complex of the spine, and an unusually long index finger. A werewolf can be changed back into a human by calling the Christian name, or by providing it with food. More robust weapons made of silver can kill a werewolf which then turns back into a human being. The first records of werewolves has taken the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, who claimed that negrien army of warriors were able to change into wolves. The most famous historical werewolves were Jean Grenier and Peter Stubbe. These alleged werewolves are usually found insane. For example, lykantropiaamental disorder, which is suffering a person feels to be either an animal or an animal to be changing, such as wolves.














Scandinavia - Úlfhednar, ulfheobar Donovan Q. (A1)

http://s4.hubimg.com/u/70007_f260.jpg
http://s4.hubimg.com/u/70007_f260.jpg

Ulfhednars were fighters that wore wolfskin when fighting.(Curt) Their name also means wolfskin.(Curt) They believed wearing the wolfskin would enhance their fighting ability.(Curt) Ulfhednars were pretty resistant to pain and killed viciously in battle much like the animal they wore.(Dawn) The Ulfhednars are mentioned in Vatnsdœla saga.(Curt) Vatnsdœla saga is one of the sagas of icelander.(Curt) Ulfhednars are usually put in the same category as Berserkers. Much like the Ulfhednars, Berserkers also wore animal clothing into battle, but they wore bear skin instead.(Dawn)Both groups of warriors were closely associated with the Norse god Odin. (Dawn)

Norse - Fenrir / Daniel Winebrenner

Fenrir.jpg
http://lunaticlucien.deviantart.com/art/Odin-and-Fenrir-at-Ragnarock-168022283

One of the most significant roles played in Norse mythology is that of the great wolf Fenrir. His conception took place between the god Loki and a jotun (giant) named Angrbooa. He was bound by three great tethers, only the dwarven crafted Gleipnir held. Hitherto Fenrir was a nuisance to the gods and man alike. As foretold, during Ragnarök (doomsday) Fenrir's children will devour the sun, moon, and the stars. As time progresses the Earth will tremor violently and the very fetters placed on Fenrir will break free. He will join his brother Jörmungandr in the fields of Vígríðr and there will assemble an army to fight the gods themselves. "High says that there are many men in Valhalla, and many more who will arrive, yet they will seem too few when the wolf comes." (Wikipedia contributors) During this battle Odin, the chief god and chieftain of Valhalla, will be consumed whole by Fenrir. Odin's son Víðarr will then avenge his father by prying open the fell wolf's mouth and tearing apart his jaws. The abominable offspring of the vandal god Loki is one of the most remarkable features of a peoples beliefs long past. The coming of the White Christ all but erased these fearsome beasts and tribulations from the everyday mind.


"Fenrir." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Web. 18 Dec 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenrir>.

"Fenrir." Encyclopedia Mythica. 2011. Encyclopedia Mythica Online.
18 Dec. 2011 <http://www.pantheon.org/articles/f/fenrir.html>.


Works Cited

"Anthropomorphism." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 16 Dec. 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropomorphism>.


Author, High Fantasy Book Artist Web Site. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://www.seekerworld.com/legends/werewolf.html>.


Curt, Joen. “History of the werewolf”. 23 Nov 2009. <http://joen-curt.hubpages.com/hub/History_of_the_werewolf>.

Dawn, April. “Werewolves - Lycanthropy”<http://www.mythicalrealm.com/legends/werewolf.html>.

Demi.fi. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://demi.fi/moduletextimage/getContent/instance_id/92268>.

"Fenrir." Encyclopedia Mythica. 2011. Encyclopedia Mythica Online.
18 Dec. 2011 <http://www.pantheon.org/articles/f/fenrir.html>.

"Fenrir." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Web. 18 Dec 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenrir>.

"Ihmissusi – Wikipedia." Wikipedia, Vapaa Tietosanakirja. Leena Peltosen. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ihmissusi>.

Moonlight, . "Ancient Norse Werewolves."http://www.werewolves.com/ancient-norse-werewolves/. werewolves.com, 2010. Web. 18 Dec 2011.

Moonlight, . "Black Magic and Corpse Breeches."http://www.werewolves.com/black-magic-and-corpse-breeches/. werewolves.com, 2010. Web. 18 Dec 2011.


Moore, Janice. "The Ancient History of the Werewolf Myth, Shape-Shifter Legends And Art Drawings of Werewolves, and Vampire Beasts." Epic Legend Of The Seeker World Fiction And NonFiction, NC <http://www.seekerworld.com/legends/werewolf.html>

Odin and Fenrir at Ragnarock. 2010. Graphic. n.p.<http://lunaticlucien.deviantart.com/art/Odin-and-Fenrir-at-Ragnarock-168022283>

Wayzt, Adam. "Does the Devil Really Wear Prada? The Psychology of Anthropomorphism and Dehumanization." Does the Devil Really Wear Prada? The Psychology of Anthropomorphism and Dehumanization. Barbara Isanski Association for Psychological Science, 25 Feb. 2010. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://www.psychologicalscience.org/media/releases/2010/waytz.cfm>.