E. Werewolf legends in Southern Europe, Africa, and the Middle East
  1. Italy – Benandanti / Courtney E. (A1)
  2. Italy – lupo mannero / AJ W. (B1)
  3. Greece – Lycaeon / Cameron R. (B1)
  4. Africa/Egypt – werejackal / Danny R. (A1)
  5. Greece/Rome – Cerberus / Taylor H. (A1)
  6. Kenya – ilimu / Kayla R. (B1)
  7. Spain – lob hombre / Tiere R. (B1)
  8. Greece – cynocephali / Taylor J. (B1)
  9. Egypt/Rome – Cult of Anubis/Hermanubis / Denis C. (B1)
  10. Africa (Ethiopia, Morocco, Tanzania) - werehyena/boudas / Tia M. (B1)
  11. Portugal – lobh omen




ItalyBenandanti / Courtney E. (A1)
The Benandanti Werewolf Photograph. Http:www.werewolves.com. 12 Oct. 2009. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://www.werewolves.com/benandanti-werewolves/>
The Benandanti Werewolf Photograph. Http:www.werewolves.com. 12 Oct. 2009. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://www.werewolves.com/benandanti-werewolves/>





In 1692 there was a trial that involved an eighty year old man named Thiess. The case all began when Thiess confessed that he was a Benandanti, a term that can be roughly translated into good walkers (“Benandanti Werewolves”, werewolves.com). The Benandanti werewolf was not your average “wolf man.” During the time period of this trial, people even believed that they were teamed up with the Devil. When in reality, Benandanti werewolves were against the Devil and were “hounds of God” (“The Benandanti Werewolves”). The Benandanti werewolf originates in northern Italy and its job was to prevent the Devil from coming to Earth and corrupting the lives and souls of the humans. Also, not only did they harm and go against the Devil, but witches as well, they kept regular humans from suffering. Or at least this is what was told by Thiess. He claimed that the Devil and the witches were taking everyone’s crops from Earth and sending them to Hell (“Benandanti Werewolves”, werewolves.com). All the good deeds of the Benandanti werewolves took place on three different days of the year. They would go out on Saint Lucia, Pentecost, and Saint John (“Benandanti Werewolves”,werewolves.com). These days were simply the season changes. To fight off evil, the werewolves would leave one shape and take another at night (“Benandanti Werewolves”, werewolves.com). Benandantis were humans during the day and would not reveal their “second side” to the public eye. Though Thiess claimed he was this kind of werewolf, most of them had died off around 1610. It has been said that the werewolves lost a battle to groups of witches in the underworld (“Benandanti Werewolves”, werewolves.com). Many believe that if Thiess confessed of being this type of werewolf, there must be more of its kind somewhere here on Earth (“Benandanti Werewolves”, werewolves.com). So you never know, one of your closest friends could be a Benandanti werewolf, human during the day and fighting off the Devil and witches at night.











Africa/Egypt – Werejackal - Daniel R. (A1)
The_Jackal.jpg
Blaine. The Jackal. 2004. Wikia. Wikia. Wikia Entertainment. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://superfanon.wikia.com/wiki/The_Jackal>.


In comparison to most werewolf legends, the werejackal takes the form of human during the day time and werejackal during the night. The thing that makes werejackal’s unique is that they only become the beast when the curse of Pharaohs or the priests of Anubis comes upon them ("Monstrous Gallery: Were Jackal"). The legend of the werejackal has become prominent in Africa and Egypt. Since there are no wolfs in Africa or Egypt, the jackal which is the closest relative to the wolf takes over ("Werewolf and Shapeshifter Codex: Werecoyote Annex"). Werejackals are known to worship the jackal-headed god Anubis ("Werewolf and Shapeshifter Codex: Werecoyote Annex"). They are found commonly in large amounts, the “pantheon” is known as the werejackals pack (Harpe). These creatures play a different role compared to werewolf legends and myths found in different countries. Unlike modern day werewolfs who shift during full moons, werejackals are creatures that transform when summoned and only to worship their god ("Monstrous Gallery: Were Jackal"). In contrast, werejackals can be harmed only by silver items. This is very similar to modern day werewolf lore. So if you are traveling through Africa or Egypt and come across a werejackal think twice before harming it, it is very rude to interrupt worship!





Italy – lupo mannero / AJ W. (B1)
http://misteri.esoterya.com/ovidio-e-petronio-tradizione-popolare-del-lupo-mannaro/12443/
http://misteri.esoterya.com/ovidio-e-petronio-tradizione-popolare-del-lupo-mannaro/12443/

The Lupo mannero is also called Lincantropo in Italian. Such as the Benandanti, the lupo mannero werewolves permanently transform into werewolves to go in battle against witches in the underworld (Johnson, “Werewolf Italy”). The Lupo Mannero werewolf has been incorporated into several books, movies, etc… A couple books such as the “Un Lupo Mannero Americano A Landra” (Amazon) and “The Werewolf in Lore and Legend” (Amazon). Also Lupo Mannero has been somehow put into movies such as Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, in which Professor Lupin becomes a werewolf when fighting off withces/wizards. Another movie in which lupo mannero werewolves were incorporated into the film is “An American Werewolf in London.” (Movie2k.to)


Greece/Rome – Cerberus / Taylor H. (A1)

800px-Cerberus-Blake.jpeg
Cerberus. (Hans) Sebald Beham, 1545. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia
According to ancient Greek mythology, Cerberus is a dog like creature that guards the gates of hell. He was usually said to have three heads, though the 7th century poet Hesiod had told he had 50 (Cerberus). Heads of snakes grew from his back, and he had a serpent’s tail (Cerberus). Cerberus’s job is basically to protect the underworld, it is believed that he consumes anyone or anything that tries to escape the underworld and prevents humans from entering the underworld. Each of Cerberus' heads is said to have an appetite only for live meat and thus allow the spirits of the dead to freely enter the underworld, but allow none to leave (Crane, Gregory). He is the offspring of Echidna, a hybrid half-woman and half-serpent, and of Typhon, a fire-breathing giant whom even the Olympian gods feared; also the brother of Orthrus, who is always depicted as a two-headed hellhound (Crane, Gregory). Cerberus is one of many complex creatures in Greek mythology.










Kenya – Ilimu / Kayla R. (B1)
pic.jpg
Miner, Mark. "Worldwide Werewolves." HubPages.com. Web. 4 Dec. 2011. <http://markminer.hubpages.com/hub/Worldwide-Werewolves>.
Throughout the Kikuyu tribe of Kenya (Maberry, 2009), legends are told of a shape-shifting monster called the Ilimu. It isn’t a human being cursed to be a monster, but rather a demon that can possess animals and transform into the image of a man (Maberry, 2006). In order for the Ilimu to take the shape of a human, it has to obtain a piece of tissue- such as hair, blood, or nails- and then take in the data stored in the cells so that it can become an exact replica of that person (Maberry, 2006). After taking on their human form, the Ilimu murders the original and takes its place, mixing itself into the community. It is very intelligent and plays the part well enough that it would take a wise medicine man or a witch doctor to determine whether there is a demon or a true being in their midst. This creature appears in many legends in different African countries, including Ghana and Uganda. In 1898, two lions were thought to be Ilimu, and were responsible of the deaths of 130 people building a bridge across the Tsavo River (Maberry, 2009). The lions were hunted using deceptive maneuvers unknown to animals. Eventually, big game hunters brought them down, but only after the lions had foiled their traps time and time again (Maberry, 2009). This story was told in a movie in 1996, The Ghost and the Darkness, starring Michael Douglas and Val Kilmer (Maberry, 2009). These lions, now dead and stuffed, are on display at the Field Museum in Chicago (Maberry, 2006).
gn83218_6b.jpg
Exhibit Preparator, Repairing, and Cleaning Lions of Tsavo Case. Photograph. The Field Museum, Chicago.



















Greece – Lycaeon / Cameron R. (B1)

"Google Images." Google//. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://dl.id.au/images/Lycaon-Nathan.jpg.
"Google Images." Google//. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://dl.id.au/images/Lycaon-Nathan.jpg.

The myth of the Lycaeon starts out with King Lycaeus, or Lycaeon, who was the king of Arcadia (Lycaon). This man had fifty sons and one daughter, Callisto, who became one of Zeus’ lovers (Lycaon). Back in those days, it wasn’t uncommon for one man to have that many children. He was a trickster so he thought he could pull one over on Zeus. You can already tell this guy wasn't very smart. He didn't try to trick one of the lesser Gods. He chooses the top God first. He tried to serve Zeus some meat that happened to have meat from a slaughtered human mixed in it. Lycaeus practiced cannibalism which was and still is frowned upon all over Greece (Werewolf). The slaughtered human was one of three people; either Lycaeus’ son Nyktimos, his grandson Arkas, or some Molossian captive (LYCAON). When Zeus found out, he turned Lycaeus into a werewolf, but made him keep the brain and mindset of a human so he could constantly be reminded of his torture (LYCAON). Zeus also killed all of Lycaeus’ sons with lightning bolts as punishment (LYCAON). Lycaeus is so famous that there is a temple dedicated to wolf-worship in Greece called the Lyceum, named after Lycaeus (OTHERKIN…). This story serves as a lesson of getting what you deserve for your wrong-doings. The story of this man is where we get the term Lycanthropy from. Lycanthropy comes from the Greek lykoi, meaning “wolf” & anthropos, meaning “man” (Werewolf). The more modern meaning of the wor is a mental illness when a person thinks they are transforming into an animal-like creature (Lycanthropy). All in all it's Lycaeus' fault that cannibalism has risen like it has and the reason people go crazy, thinking their some type of animal.



Spain – lob hombre/ Tiere R. (B1)

lob_hombre-spanish_werewolf.jpg
"Werewolf: Myth Werewolves, Werewolf Legend, Werewolves History, were beasts, werewolfs :Mythical Realm." Lady Gryphon's Mythical Realm: Beasts of Myth/Mythical Creatures & Arthurian Myth and Legend Creatures. 28 Nov. 2011 <http://www.mythicalrealm.com/legends/werewolf.html>.

Similar to various countries, Spain’s werewolf, Lob Hombre, is unique to its country. As legends of the Spanish werewolf are being told, it is said that there are over seventy traditional expressions that can be used to avoid saying the word “lobo” (“Iberian”). The use of many different words when speaking of Lob Hombre is, because of the belief that the werewolf can be invoked with the mere utterance of the word “lobo” (“Iberian”). Lob Hombre stands out from several other werewolves, in the aspect that it is thought of as a she-wolf. Many werewolf legends depict the werewolf as a hideous beast that does nothing but feed on humans. At times the stories are told to teach lessons or scare individuals from doing certain things. The Spanish werewolf legend isn’t told to scare the people, the she-wolf protects humans, and it isn’t vicious and unlike many, doesn’t seek the human flesh but prefer pretty gemstones (Moore). The relationship of Lob Hombre being a she-wolf, and preferring gemstones to human flesh and blood, opens the eyes of the readers or listeners of the legend. Being able to see that gemstones, jewelry, and diamonds are a women’s best friend. Ever had a curse placed upon your soul by your very own parent? In Spanish legends, becoming a werewolf is involuntary. The change is mostly associated with the curse of a parent (“Iberian”). “The girl, it seems, loved meat. She ate so much of it that one day her father lost his temper and bid her go to the mountains to live with the wolves where she could satiate herself with flesh to her heart's delight” (“Iberian”). The meat that the young girl loved wasn’t that of a human, it was the sight of beautiful gemstones that brought excitement to her. Werewolf legends are different all across the world and they are all unique to their country and a very special way.


Greece – cynocephali / Taylor J. (B1)

The Cynocephali, or Dog-Heads, were one of the most well known monstrous races of werewolf mythology. As illustrated in the photo, they had the head of a dog and the body of a human male. The origins of the Cynocephali begin in Greece. The Cynocephali appears in many of the works of Pliny the Elder. They are portrayed as a group of peaceful men who posses dog-like faces and characteristics.
Unknown. Cynocephalus. 1936. Photograph. photostream gallery (yahoo)Web. 4 Dec 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/24773748@N08/page4></http:>.
Unknown. Cynocephalus. 1936. Photograph. photostream gallery (yahoo)Web. 4 Dec 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/24773748@N08/page4></http:>.
They had large fangs which protruded from their mouths, long, thick legs, a hairy tail, and barked loudly just like that of a dog. Rather than a normal human speech the Cynocephali communicates though a series of barks and growls (Murphy 85). Using a bow or spear, a Cynocephali had perfect precision. This battle expertise leads to many to many rumors and tales of the Cynocephali as fierce and brilliant warriors. Adding to the fear of the Cynocephali's battle dexterity, the Cynocephali often consumed human flesh and would eat the bodies of warriors slain in battle (Cohen 15). Despite their brutish nature, these dog-headed beasts actually had very unique human characteristics. This human element helps to explain the implementation of the Cynocephali into religion and other significant roles in medieval society (Rudwick 213). As Christianity took its dominance, the Cynocephali began to change and appear in Christian artwork and literature. The Cynocephali essentially progressed to become more of a monster as society changes.


Egypt/Rome – Cult of Anubis/Hermanubis/ Denis C. (B1)
anubis_god_of_dead.jpg
Anubis. 2011. Painting. http://sleeplessandtired.comPrint

The Egyptian god, Anubis, was one of many ideals the people of Egypt worshipped. People referred to Anubis by other names such as Anpu, Inpu, Ienpw, and Imeut (Seawright, Caroline). It is commonly believed his appearance is the body of a man, but has a head of the jackal. The meaning behind Anubis’ head is to protect the bodies from jackals, forming a connection between the beasts and the god (McDevitt, April). Symbols associated with this god are jackals, embalming equipment, and ox hide hanging from a pole (McDevitt, April). In Egyptian culture, Anubis is god of the dead and inventor of mummification; assisting in crossings to the underworld and preserving dead bodies (McDevitt, April). Anubis also performed the embalmment of his father, Osiris (McDevitt, April). Another important task was weighing the heart on the Scale of Truth (Gill, N.S). The Scale of Truth was used to weigh the heart of the dead against a feather; symbolizing Maat, goddess of justice (Alchin, Linda). If the heart weighed more, Anubis fed the soul to Ammit the Devourer (Seawright, Caroline). Cults worshipped Anubis since the second century (Gill, N.S). The priests of these groups wore wolf like masks in honor of the god of the dead (Anubis). However, Hugh Trotti theorized in 1990 that Romans adopted Anubis during the first century; referred to as Hermanubis (Anubis). During the fall of the Roman Empire, statues of Hermanubis were seen by Germanic tribes (Anubis). Distorted accounts have lead to created legends of humans taking the form of wolves (Anubis). In most cultures, wolf-like figures are portrayed as demons, monsters, or human transformations from encounters with wolves. Anubis is one of few or the only wolf-related creature worshipped as a god. Instead of a terrorizing purpose, he assists people into the after-life; an Egyptian version of the Grim Reaper. As a god, Anubis could be the most powerful wolf being to exist.







Africa (Ethiopia, Morocco, Tanzania) -werehyena/boundas/ Tia M. (B1)
Hyenaman-12.jpg
Harp Waugh, Lisa L. ""Werehyena" Is Real, and Nothing to Laugh At!" HAUNTED AMERICA TOURS "GHOST HUNT RESPONSIBLY"~ HauntedAmericaTours.com. Haunted American Tour, 12 Dec. 2001. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. http://www.hauntedamericatours.com/haunted/Werehyena.php.

The mythological werehyena, also known as "bounda", is a unique creature found in folklore in the continent of Africa. The werehyena or bounda, in many of the Moroccan and Tanzanian folklore is said to be blacksmith and woodcutter that live in local tribes, that have the ability to transform into the wild creature (Williams, “Creatures Myth of Africa…”). It is believed that this metamorphosis was bestowed on them by the power of a wizard (Harp Waugh, “Werehyena”). This is the most common belief in the African folklore. It is said that the bounda has the ability to mesmerize victims with its eyes or with its pheromones, which sends their victim into a hypnotizing trance (Harp Waugh, “Werehyenas”). With much research, it didn't say what the ability was used for, but is important to the creatures being. It’s also said, that werehyena robs graves at midnight (Harp Waugh, “Werehyena”). Though the werehyena is said to be first cousin of the were-wolf, there are some differences between the two (Harp Waugh, “Werehyenas”). It is more common for a female to transform, than male, and that women are the alphas of the pack, but this varies on the region you here the tale (Hall, “Were-hyenas"). In many of the folklore stories it is said that, unlike the werewolf that is bound by the full moon, the were-hyena can morph into a hyena whenever the creature desires (Harp Waugh, “Werehyenas”). This ability cause great fear in the people that believe because that means that anytime the beast can attack. Also, unlike the werewolf who are said to be a human that transform into a wolf, the lore told that the beast can be hyenas shift in to human state (Hall, “Were-hyenas"). This belief is also common throughout the African folklore tales. The tales of this mythical creature in the regions of African keep the belief in the being alive. So, if you see a person that has a hairy body, a nasal voice, or eyes that gleamed with redness, be aware because he or she might just be a werehyena (Williams, “Myth of the African…”).


Works Cited

Alchin, Linda. "Underworld." http://www.king-tut.org.uk. N.p., 16 Jan 2009. <http://www.king-tut.org.uk/egyptian-mummies/underworld.htm>.

"Anubis." castleofspirits.com. CLJ Design, 2009. 22 Nov 2011. <http://www.castleofspirits.com/werewolf2.html>.


Benandanti Werewolves | Famous Werewolves." Welcome to the Werewolves Section. Web. 17 Dec. 2011. <http://werewolves.monstrous.com/benandanti_werewolves.htm>.

"Benandanti." Werewolves. Web. 17 Dec. 2011. http://www.werewolves.com/benandanti-werewolves/.

Exhibit Preparator, Repairing, and Cleaning Lions of Tsavo Case. Photograph. The Field Museum, Chicago.

"Cerberus." Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/103227/Cerberus>.

Cohen, Jeffery. Of Giants: Sex, Monsters, and the Middle Ages. Minnesota: University of
Minnesota Press, 1999

Gill, N.S. "Anubis."http://ancienthistory.about.com. The New York Times Company, 2011. 22 Nov 2011. <http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/godsreligion/p/Anubis.htm>.

Hall, Jamie. "Portal of Transformation: Were-hyenas in Folklore and Mythology." Jamie Hall, Author- Personal Home Page. 2007. Web. 15 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.jh-author.com/werehyena.htm>.

Harpe, Zara. "Lycathropes - WereJackals." Soiroom. Hyperchat. Web. 17 Dec. 2011.
http://soiroom.hyperchat.com/domin/pagejackals.html.

Harp Waugh, Lisa L. ""Werehyena" Is Real, and Nothing to Laugh At!" HAUNTED AMERICA TOURS "GHOST HUNT RESPONSIBLY"~ HauntedAmericaTours.com. Haunted American Tour, 12 Dec. 2001. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. http://www.hauntedamericatours.com/haunted/Werehyena.php.

"Iberian Wolf - Wolves in Spain." IberiaNature - A Guide to Spain: Environment, Geography, Nature, Landscape, Climate, Culture, History, Rural Tourism and Travel. Web. 16 Dec. 2011. < http://www.iberianature.com/material/wolf.html#traditions>.

Johnson, Kristin J. "Where's the Were." . N.p., 16 May 2006. Web. 18 Dec 2011. http://wererat.net/werewhere.htm.

"Lycanthropy." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 17 Dec. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lycanthropy>.

"Lycaon." Encyclopedia Mythica: Mythology, Folklore, and Religion. Web. 17 Dec. 2011. http://www.pantheon.org/articles/l/lycaon.html.

"LYCAON : King of Arcadia ; Greek Mythology : LYKAON." THEOI GREEK MYTHOLOGY, Exploring Mythology & the Greek Gods in Classical Literature & Art. Web. 17 Dec. 2011. http://www.theoi.com/Heros/Lykaon.html.

Maberry, Jonathan. Vampire Universe: the Dark World of Supernatural Beings That Haunt Us, Hunt Us, and Hunger for Us. New York,: Citadel, 2006. Print.

Maberry, Jonathan, and David F. Kramer. They Bite: Endless Cravings of Supernatural Predators. New York: Citadel, 2009. Print.

McDevitt, April. "Anubis."egyptianmyths.net. Egyptian Myths, 21 Apr 2011. 22 Nov 2011. <http://www.egyptianmyths.net/anubis.htm>.

Miner, Mark. "Worldwide Werewolves." HubPages.com. Web. 4 Dec. 2011. <http://markminer.hubpages.com/hub/Worldwide-Werewolves>.

"Monstrous Gallery: Were Jackal." The Atlantis Blog. Atlantis, 28 Jan. 2010. Web. 17 Dec. 2011.
<http://elton-atlantis.blogspot.com/2010/01/monstrous-gallery-were-jackal.html>.

Moore, Janice. "The Ancient History of the Werewolf Myth, Shape-Shifter Legends And Art Drawings of Werewolves, and Vampire Beasts." Epic Legend Of The Seeker World Fiction And NonFiction, NC Author, High Fantasy Book Artist Web Site. 2003. Web. 16 Dec. 2011. <http://www.seekerworld.com/legends/werewolf.html.>

Murphy, Trevor. Pliny the Elder's Natural History: The Empire in the Encyclopedia.

New York: Oxford UP, 2004.
"OTHERKIN MYTHOLOGY: THE WEREWOLF LYCAON « C.H. Scarlett." C.H. Scarlett. Web. 17 Dec. 2011. http://chscarlett.wordpress.com/2010/10/18/otherkin-mythology-the-werewolf-lycaon/.


Perseus Digital Library Project. Crane, Gregory. Tufts University. 17 Dec. 2011. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu>


Rudwick, M.J.S. Georges Cuvier, Fossil Bones, and Geological Catastrophes: New
Translations & Interpretations of the Primary Texts. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1998.
\
Seawright, Caroline. "Anubis." http://www.touregypt.net. AKNsolutions.com, n.d. Web. 18 Dec 2011. <http://www.touregypt.net/godsofegypt/anubis.htm>.

"The Werewolf Page Myths - The Benandanti Werewolves." The Werewolf Page - This Werewolf Related Site Contains an Extensive Collection of Resources Pertaining to the Legend of the Werewolf. Web. 17 Dec. 2011. <http://www.werewolfpage.com/myths/Benandanti.htm>.

"Werewolf and Shapeshifter Codex: Werecoyote Annex." The Werewolf and Shapeshifter Codex: Fact, Folklore, Lycanthropy. Yaiolani. Web. 17 Dec. 2011.
<http://yaiolani.tripod.com/werecoyote.html>.

"Werewolf: Myth Werewolves, Werewolf Legend, Werewolves History, were beasts, werewolfs :Mythical Realm." Lady Gryphon's Mythical Realm: Beasts of Myth/Mythical Creatures & Arthurian Myth and Legend Creatures. 28 Nov. 2011 <http://www.mythicalrealm.com/legends/werewolf.html.>

Williams, Yona. "Creature Myths of Africa: Werehyenas and More." Unexplainable.Net- UFOS, Ghosts, Paranormal, 2012 And More- Latest News. Unexplainable Enterprises LLC., 24 Apr. 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. http://www.unexplainable.net/Info-Theories/Creature-Myths-of-Africa-Werehyenas-and-More.shtml.


(Don't forget to make sure all sources are alphabetized)