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A. Literary Werewolves
B. Werewolf legends in Western Europe, Continental and Insular
C. Werewolf legends in Eastern Europe, Asia, and the Pacific Rim
D. Werewolf legends of the Scandinavian Nations and Arctic Tribes
E. Werewolf legends in Southern Europe, Africa, and the Middle East
F. Werewolf legends in North, Central, and South America
G. Werewolf connections to medicine, science, folk remedies
H. Innovative Werewolf Transformation Special Effects (including Make Up) in Cinema
I. Unique Contributions to Werewolf Lore (particularly Origins) in Film
J. Pop Culture Werewolves - Animation, Teen Lit, Video Games
K. Guest Experts & Other Invited Guests
L. Wolf & Werewolf Related Music
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G. Werewolf connections to medicine, science, folk remedies
G. Werewolf connections to medicine/science/folk remedies
Marychris M. (A3)
Yasmine S. (A1)
Jonas I. (A1)
Jillian G. (A1)
Kyndal S. (A3)
Mary A. (A1)
Irish Wolf Hounds /
Caiti S. (B1)
Lunar phases + moods, behavior, crime, etc. /
Ana S (A3)
Epilepsy/ Yasmine S. (A1)
Baby Werewolf. 2007-2011. Photograph. deviantart.comWeb. 11 Dec 2011. <http://humon.deviantart.com/art/Baby-Werewolf-71057808>.
(Short werewolf transformation video - click picture)
It is said that there are two types of werewolves - voluntary and involuntary. Voluntary wolves are associated with devils directly, especially for achieving an evil purpose. Involuntary werewolves, on the other hand, are born naturally. It is believed in certain religions that a child born on a new moon night or a child who is suffering from epilepsy will transform himself / herself into a werewolf in his / her later life ("Paranormal-Encyclopedia.com"). However, according to a University of South Florida study, "Werewolves notwithstanding, the full moon does not influence the frequency of epileptic seizures ("" 1)." "Contrary to the myth, epileptic seizures are not more common during a full moon," said Selim Benbadis, MD, associate professor of neurology and neurosurgery at the USF College of Medicine. "In fact, we found the number of epileptic seizures was lowest during the full moon and highest in the moon's last quarter ("" 1)." So, is there REALLY a connection between a full moon, epileptic seizures, and werewolves? What seems to be the case is that if a child with was born during a full moon night, their future as a full-blown human would no longer be. Their epileptic seizures would carry on into the latter part of their lives and trigger the transformations associated with "werewolfism."
Wolfsbane (Lycanthropic Flower) - Mary A. (A1)
McDougall, Susan. Aconitum Columbianum. 2011. Photograph. The PLANTS Database, Greensboro, NC. Web. 29 Nov 2011. <http://plants.usda.gov>.
Wolfsbane, also known as aconite (“Aconite”), is a flower heard of in regards to past tales of werewolves. As its name would suggest, this herb would be the cause of destruction to any wolf or wolf-like creature. Humans feared the power of the wolf, and “
As a result, humans have often harvested the roots and synthesize them into a poison for use on weapons in hunting and war” (Carrier). It was once believed that the wolf could transform a human into one of its kind, thus resulting in a werewolf. To prevent any shapeshifting from happening, wolves were tracked down and exterminated with the manipulation of this plant. Instead of just this offensive way to keep the wolves under control, people also used preventative measures. “People grew it around their houses or kept dried bunches of it hanging from the ceiling to protect them from
werewolves” (Greene 206). However, there is another side to wolfsbane. Lore also states that it has the power to induce the transformation into a werewolf. The reason being that in an elixir of shapeshifting, an element of guard against evil must also be included (Greene 209). The wolfsbane would be used as that substance in opposition to malevolence in order to bestow upon a person the ability to transform a human into a being of most peoples’ nightmares. With no knowledge that this plant is in fact toxic to most organisms, even humans (“Aconite”), it is easy to see why people of past times would attribute its poisonous powers to being magical protection against wolves and werewolves. Wolfsbane, though beautiful to the eye, is deadly to the touch whether you may or may not be a werewolf.
Porphyria - Jillian G. (A1)
"Porphyria - PubMed Health." Web. 03 Dec. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002188/>.
“Porphyrias are a group of rare disorders passed down within families, in which an important part of hemoglobin, called heme, is not made properly” (A.D.A.M., Inc.). With normal conditions, one's body produces heme through a multi-making process. Porphyria, however, interrupts the multitasking process, causing a deficiency with certain enzymes needed to create heme. Moreover, porphyria can critically damage one's living due to the important necessities of heme, which help within the bone marrow and liver. “There are at least eight different and specific types into the porphyria category, but the main attribute that relates to werewolves would be Congenital Erythropoietic Porphryia, or more commonly known as
(Segura). This condition leads someone to have an overgrowth of hair upon the face and hands, and may lead to the depletion of the nose, ears, eyelids, and fingers. In addition, the skin is very sensitive to the sun, and therefore could only go out during the night, otherwise risk tissue damage upon the skin. It is said that in the late 1970's, there were at least several papers and/or documents published, stating that porphyria was the basis for “vampire and werewolf legends and the only way to cure the disease back in the day was to drink animal blood” (Scott). Today, however, modern technology has pointed out that drinking animal blood does not cure porphyria. It is a very difficult disorder to treat for there is no known cure. The only major way to treat the disease is by “heme injections” (
Werewolves - A Medical Perspective)
. Bone-marrow transplants are also effective, but are still in the process of being a suitable and safe way to use.
Lupus – Jonas I. (A1)
Gordon, Rachel, and Karen Sra. "Lupus "The Great Imitator"" Medical Dermatology Dermatologist Botox Juvederm Houston Texas TX. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. <http://dermtexas.com/newsletter.html>.
"The word lupus, which means "wolf" in Latin, was first used in the Middle Ages to describe a chronic rash on the skin" (Bardi). The rash on infected people gave them a werewolf-like appearance which could explain why this disease was named lupus. In medical terms, "lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various parts of the body" (Lupus Foundation of America). This disease causes antibodies, the immune system's form of protection against foreign invaders, to attack it's own body tissues. The reason is unknown why the immune system cannot tell between the invaders and the tissues. "1.5 million Americans are afflicted by some form of lupus, while more than 5 million people are known to be affected worldwide" (Molly's Fund). It mostly affects women, but men can also be acquire the disease too. Though, colored people are more likely to get the disease. Lupus isn't contagious, so it doesn't spread from person to person. Once detected, it should be treated immediately because if it is not, "lupus is potentially fatal" leading to "organ damage and failure-serious conditions" like cancer (Molly's Fund). It is possible to live a full life with lupus, "with good medical care" (Lupus Foundation of America). Since lupus isn't as well recognized and understood as other major diseases, information about it isn't as up to date like others. "More than 16,000 Americans are diagnosed with lupus each year" (Molly's Fund). There are a few treatments to help the symptoms caused by lupus, but there is no known cure presently.
Lunar phases + moods, behavior, crime, etc - Ana Sanchez ( A3 )
Werewolf Behaviors. 2007. Photograph. Horrorphile. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://www.horrorphile.net/debate-battle-vampires-or-werewolves/>
“The full moon has been linked to crime, suicide, mental illness, disasters, accidents, birthrates, fertility, and werewolves, among other things. Some people even buy and sell stocks according to the phases of the moon, a method probably as successful as many others.” (Carroll). Some very strange behaviors reported in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer was a man who brutally murdered women claiming himself as a werewolf. "
He thought of himself as a werewolf, he said, and thus stalked "prey" the way a ravenous beast might do.He'd studied other killers to learn how to avoid being caught, such as shaving his body hair.He'd long fantasized about torturing girls and wanted to cut out the heart of a victim to eat it.He also desired to keep his victims in a cave, and complained that his first one had died too fast as he was torturing her with a knife.After burying her in the woods, he apparently exhumed her body several times for sexual purposes.When recounting his blood-thirsty fantasies, Spillman reportedly would grow quite frenzied." (Ramsland). Although werewolves seem to be correlated with lunar phases and strange behaviors during certain phases of the moon, not very many people have reported any such behavior during these periods.
Hypertrichosis- Kyndal Stakes (A3)
Hypertrichosis – The Wolfman Syndrome | Strange, Weird & Bizarre Medical Cases & Facts. Photograph. Bizarre Medical Facts | Weird Medical Trivia. 14 July 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bizarremedical.com/hypertrichosis-the-wolfman-syndrome/>.
Excommunication - Marychris S. Mistica (A3)
Excommunication. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 17 Dec. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Excommunication>.
CNN World states, "Excommunication is a 'medicinal penalty' intended to correct the culprit and bring him back to the path of righteousness." This occurs when an individual commits an action that is not deemed appropriate by the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church and its bishops are those who possess the power to issue excommunication to a member of the church. "For one to be excommunicated, a baptized Catholic must knowingly place oneself outside of full communion with the Church, according to canon law" (DeFrancesco). All members of the Catholic Church are primarily baptized. However, this is not enough to guarantee a spot in heaven. Anything a person does throughout the course of his or her life will always have that person accountable for him or herself. An example of simply denying and disobeying the church and its laws, if once a Catholic, can result to be excommunicated. One is not able to "participate in public worship nor receive the Body of Christ or any sacraments" (CNN World). Any involvement of communion is not permitted after excommunication. Although, this does not mean an automatic placement in hell nor does it mean it is impossible to terminate the excommunication if a member wished. He or she must repent with earnest effort in order to be able to participate once again. This is called absolution of excommunication. According to CNN World, "Ecclesiastical authority has the right to impose certain conditions for the return of the culprit." Excommunication goes centuries and centuries back, and it still occurs today. In 2008, diocesan priests named Msgr. Dale Fushek and Fr. Mark Dippre "continued involvement with a small, Mesa-based faith community" (DeFrancesco). Excommunication was issued as a result due to their schism. Excommunication purpose is "not to punish the culprit, as to correct him and bring him back to the path of righteousness" (Boudinhon).
Irish Wolf Hounds - Caiti Shirey (B1)
Bernard, Frank. "Irish Wolfhounds." Google. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.dogbreedinfo.com/images15/IrishWolfhoundFrankBrendan.JPG>.
There are many unique animals that roam this earth, one happens to be the Irish Wolfhound. These great dogs are considered to be the size of a small pony. Irish Wolfhounds grow to be between 28 and 35 inches tall on all four legs. When Irish Wolfhounds stand on their hind legs they can reach up to 7 feet tall. These dogs usually weigh between 90 to 150 pounds. Some have grown to be up to 200 pounds. These majestic animals are over all well-tempered and intelligent. According to the Dog Bread Info Center, “The Irish Wolfhound is relatively easy to train” (Irish Wolfhound Information and Pictures, Irish Wolfhounds). Similar most dogs Irish Wolfhounds are expected to live a minimum life span of 6 years and a maximum of 8 years. Like most medium-length haired dogs, the Irish Wolfhounds do require regular grooming such as; combing, bathing, and plucking of the coat. An interesting fact about these dogs is that
The first Irish Wolfhound was registered in Britain in the 1889 and, again, in 1909” (McBryde, Mary). Even though Irish Wolfhounds are dogs, they are far more interesting, intelligent, and more wolf-like than all other dogs.
. American Cancer Society, Inc, 03 Nov. 2008. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <www.cancer.org>.
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. A.D.A.M., Inc., 28 Feb. 2011. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.
Baby Werewolf. 2007-2011. Photograph. deviantart.comWeb. 11 Dec 2011. <
Bardi, Jason S. "The Genetic I.D. of Lupus."
. The Scripps Research Institute. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <
Bernard, Frank. "Irish Wolfhounds."
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Boudinhon, Auguste. "Excommunication." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 18 Dec. 2011<
Carrier, T. "What Is Wolfsbane?."
. Conjecture Corporation, 2003. Web. 18 Dec 2011.
Carroll, Robert T. "Full Moon & Lunar Effects." Skepdic, 30 Nov. 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <
DeFrancesco, Robert. "Two Priests Excommunicated." The Catholic Sun. 17 Dec 2008: Web. <
"Excommunication facts." CNN World. 10 Apr 2001. CNN World, Web. 17 Dec 2011. <
"Full Moon Has No Effect On Epilepsy - Werewolves Unclear." (2007): 1. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.
Gordon, Rachel, and Karen Sra. "Lupus "The Great Imitator""
Medical Dermatology Dermatologist Botox Juvederm Houston Texas TX
. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. <
The Magic of Shapeshifting
. York Beach: Red Wheel/Weiser, LLC, 2000. 206-209. <
Welcome to the Werewolves Section
. Monstrous.com, 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <
Hypertrichosis Information and Details on Treatments
. Hypertrichosis.com. Web. 18 Dec. 2011. <
"Irish Wolfhound Information and Pictures, Irish Wolfhounds."
Dog Breed Info Center®, DBI
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McBryde, Mary. "Irish Wolfhound Information - History, Temperament and Wolfhound Links."
Woofahs Dogs and Cats
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McDougall, Susan. Aconitum Columbianum. 2011. Photograph. The PLANTS Database, Greensboro, NC. Web. 29 Nov 2011. <
Ngan, Vanessa. "Hypertrichosis. DermNet NZ."
DermNet NZ. Facts about Skin from New Zealand Dermatological Society.
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"Quick Facts About Lupus."
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Ramsland, Katherine. "The History & Psychology of Werewolf Killers -- — Serial Killer Ambitions — Crime Library on TruTV.com."
TruTV.com: Not Reality. Actuality.
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Scott. "Polite Dissent » Porphyria, Vampires, Werewolves, and Batman."
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Segura, Gabriela. "The Werewolf Legend and Its Medical Background."
The Health Matrix
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Werewolf Transformation Cartoon
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